Once a bill has completed all the parliamentary stages in both Houses, it’s ready to receive Royal Assent. This is when the Queen formally agrees to make the bill into an Act of Parliament.

Bills are usually presented to the Queen for Royal Assent in batches at roughly monthly intervals. When Royal Assent has been granted, it is announced by the Speaker of each House.

At the end of a Session, any bills awaiting Royal Assent are dealt with during the Prorogation ceremony, with the Clerk of the Parliaments (the lead official in the House of Lords) speaking the words of Royal Assent in Norman French (“La Reyne le veult” – “the Queen wishes it”).

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